Silvia Leite Faria, Orlando Pereira Faria, Cynthia Buffington, Mariane de Almeida Cardeal, Marina Kiyomi Ito
Bariatric surgery, a highly successful treatment for obesity, requires adherence to special dietary recommendations to insure the achievement of weight loss goals and weight maintenance. Postoperative consumption of protein is linked to satiety induction, nutritional status, and weight loss. Hence, we conducted an extensive literature review to identify studies focused on the following: protein and nutritional status; recommendations for dietary protein intake; the effects of protein-rich diets; and associations between dietary protein intake and satiety, weight loss, and body composition. We found that there have been few studies on protein intake recommendations for bariatric patients. Dietary protein ingestion among this population tends to be inadequate, potentially leading to a loss of lean body mass, reduced metabolic rates, and physiological damage. Conversely, a protein-rich diet can lead to increased satiety, enhanced weight loss, and improved body composition. The quality and composition of protein sources are also very important, particularly with respect to the quantity of leucine, which helps to maintain muscle mass, and thus is particularly important for this patient group. Randomized studies among bariatric surgery patient populations are necessary to establish the exact quantity of protein that should be prescribed to maintain their nutritional status.